Category Archives: western medicine

Biofilms and Disease: Why should I care?

Slime biofilm
The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections
William Costerton, Richard Veeh, Mark Shirtliff, Mark Pasmore, Christopher Post, Garth Ehrlich
Published in Volume 112, Issue 10
J Clin Invest. 2003; 112(10):1466–1477 doi:10.1172/JCI20365

Anyone who has felt plaque on their teeth, seen films at the edge of a pond, found  thick slimy glop when cleaning out a sink or fountain or suffered a respiratory infection has come into contact with biofilms.  When certain bacteria are in wet environments, they attach and send out signals to attract other bacteria called  “quorum sensing” molecules.  When the other bacteria start congregating, they start differentiating into bacteria that attach, that transport nutrients, that digest, that form protective films or crusts, adjust resistance and become far more formidable than any bacterium alone.  The biofilms are made of the bacteria, the water and the proteins, sugars and DNA that the bacteria exude.

efflux pumps
Source: The Antibiotic Paradox (Stuart B. Levy, M.D.)

For instance, when you get a respiratory virus, your bronchi are moist sites for bacterial complications.  When a bacteria lands, it calls others and makes a biofilm that blocks oxygen intake, causing you to cough. The biofilm protects the most interior bacteria. When you take antibiotics, the surface bacteria adapt by taking in samples of the antibiotics, “tasting” them with tiny efflux pumps and figuring out how to adapt.  They communicate this information to other bacteria in the biofilm.  This is how bacteria get resistant to the antibiotics.  They are even able to recombine with dead bacteria from other diseases to learn chemically how to protect themselves.  This is why our antibiotics have become less effective and why we have resistant “superbacteria”.

Biofilm.
Bacteria take on different functions.

There are herbs that being weaker than antibiotics, sneak in under the radar of the bacteria and disable their efflux pumps, which is why you ought to take those herbs together with antibiotics.  This is a direct attack on bacterial resistance.  But new biosignal technology based on plant compounds called furanones disrupts the biofilm in different ways.

Biosignal technology prevents or disrupts resistant biofilms without killing bacteria.  Instead it blocks the quorum sensing molecules that allow the bacteria to congregate and other signaling molecules that affect virulence and resistance.  This approach to bacterial control is aimed at delivering treatment while sidestepping  bacterial resistance.

There is a red seaweed, Delisea pulchra, that is not colonized by bacterial films, unlike most.  This is used by the Australian firm Biosignals which has synthesized the chemicals and uses them for medical equipment and contact lenses.  The scientists found that the seaweed was rarely covered in bacterial biofilm colonies. They established that the seaweed uses natural chemicals, furanones, to keep it free of biofilms. The furanones jam cell-to-cell signaling systems that are pivotal to the ability of bacteria to form and maintain biofilms.

Delisea japonica may contain biofilm-inhibiting substances. http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~inouye/ino/r/Nemaliales.html

Preventing bacterial communication suggests that furanones may be effective against a wide range of bacteria.   In vitro studies have found that many furanones are useful against cholera, penumonia, cystic fibrosis-related infections, food poisoning,  golden staph infections and tuberculosis. Some of these bacteria have become resistant to current antibiotics.  Now, in vitro studies bathe the bacteria in a solution with the furanones, which is not the way your body works, so there isn’t direct oral administration evidence yet.  More research needs to be done.

Furanones are found in a variety of herbs.  Andrographis, for instance, and members of the parsley family.  There may be other seaweeds that have not been identified.  A colleague who is studying biofilms suggested putting vanillin into my fountain to stop the biofilm formation and it has probably slowed it down (as well as making the waiting room smell like vanilla.)

The class of furanones is large enough however that we should first look at the traditional uses of the plants, rather than looking first for constituents in the plants.  The traditional use has thousands of years of trial and error, while new drugs are unproven in the long term.

Not all biofilms are bad.  The probiotic bacteria that forms a living wallpaper along your gut, protecting you from disease, heavy metals and allergens, is one you want.  The appendix stores a biofilm of  probiotic bacteria in its cul de sac, to protect the body from potential pathogens in the GI tract that might wipe them out.  It allows us to be re-colonized by our symbionts.  We have good bacteria, most likely in thin films all over out bodies.

appendix.600.324
The appendix is a reservoir of microbiota. Source: NY Times Illustration by Bryan Christie Design

We evolved as clusters of bacteria, which differentiated into a superstructure housing lots of partially incorporated microorganisms like mitochondria and independent microorganisms like the lactobacilli in our gut.   We do need to be sure that strategies we use in preventing disease will not disrupt our own biological processes.

Lynn Margulis’ book,  Symbiotic Planet

http://www.biosignal.com.au/history.php

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/janmic/2009/00000063/00000002/art00016

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/6/1054

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/09/magazine/09_4_appendix.html

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Vitamin D, Statins and Red Yeast Rice

red-yeast-rice-300x238As those of you who read my blog are aware, I am not a big fan of statins.  The first reason is that cholesterol is not really the problem. The second is that statins depress the body’s own anti-inflammatory compound CoQ10.  But recent research shows that, against our logical assumptions, Vitamin D levels may rise when statins are taken. Continue reading Vitamin D, Statins and Red Yeast Rice

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Should I See An MD for Acupuncture?

In most states a medical doctor can practice what is called “Medical acupuncture-modelAcupuncture” with a couple of hundred hours in a video course.  And in others, Chiropractors and sometimes Podiatrists can practice with a 300 hour course.  Compare this to the at least 1250 hour training with clinical practice and continuing education of a real Licensed Acupuncturist.  Most real acupuncturists study considerably more:  my Masters in Oriental Medicine took 4500 hours postgraduate and I have continuing education requirements that an MD or Chiropractor who needles does not.  In some states a MD can practice “acupuncture” with no educational requirement!

The real genius of Oriental Medicine is in its diagnosis, Continue reading Should I See An MD for Acupuncture?

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Why Natural Medicine?

“Much of the evidence suggests that the more doctors, more drugs, more tests and more therapies given to patients, the worse they fare — and the unhappier they become, said Donald Berwick, president of the independent research group Institute of Quality Improvement.”

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/10/AR2009061003669.html?hpid=topnews

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John Virapen, Ex Eli Lily Executive Recants

John Virapen is a German who spent 35 years in the international pharmaceutical industry, who describes his hands as dirty as anyone’s:  he personally bribed the “clean” Swedish government to register Prozac.  He describes how Zyprexa was pushed when executives knew it caused the diabetes that the company made the medicine for.  (The side effects were hidden.)  He claims that big Pharm kills more people each year than war- and he is right!

The piece is entirely in English, despite the Hebrew titles.  It is well worth listening to, since his book isn’t available here.  (In fact there are no English versions.)

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